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Residents of the Pinelands display a range of cultural differences. It is possible to identify groups of these residents based on similar land use activities, ethnic and religious backgrounds, and family ties. In recent years, scholars have paid increasing attention to the identification and study of these groups. One investigator has described the rich cultural heritage of the southern part of the Pinelands as an if ethnic archipelago\" (Marsh, 1979).
Rural residents, including Pineys, have disparate backgrounds. The majority are of English, Irish, and Scottish extraction, and are descendants of people who came to the Pinelands in the 18th and 19th centuries. These settlers were joined by the Dutch, Germans, and a few blacks and other ethnic groups. More recently, some long-time hunters and vacationers from the Delaware Valley and other parts of New Jersey have taken up this rural lifestyle on a permanent basis. Rural residents share cultural traits which include scattered or loosely grouped settlements, orientation toward family and church, and frequent participation in seasonal activities such as hunting, fishing, and berry gathering. Many rural residents are employed either full-time or part-time by local industries or government. The continued existence of this culture in the Pinelands depends on the extent of available open space and the freedom with which people will be allowed to pursue their activities. The more that development impinges on extensive, rural land uses, the more tenuous the traditional Piney culture becomes.
Tar spot complex (TSC) is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of maize ( L.) in tropical and subtropical areas of Central and South America, causing significant grain yield losses when weather conditions are conducive. To dissect the genetic architecture of TSC resistance in maize, association mapping, in conjunction with linkage mapping, was conducted on an association-mapping panel and three biparental doubled-haploid (DH) populations using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association mapping revealed four quantitative trait loci (QTL) on chromosome 2, 3, 7, and 8. All the QTL, except for the one on chromosome 3, were further validated by linkage mapping in different genetic backgrounds. Additional QTL were identified by linkage mapping alone. A major QTL located on bin 8.03 was consistently detected with the largest phenotypic explained variation: 13% in association-mapping analysis and 13.18 to 43.31% in linkage-mapping analysis. These results indicated that TSC resistance in maize was controlled by a major QTL located on bin 8.03 and several minor QTL with smaller effects on other chromosomes. Genomic prediction results showed moderate-to-high prediction accuracies in different populations using various training population sizes and marker densities. Prediction accuracy of TSC resistance was >0.50 when half of the population was included into the training set and 500 to 1,000 SNPs were used for prediction. Information obtained from this study can be used for developing functional molecular markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and for implementing genomic selection (GS) to improve TSC resistance in tropical maize.
PNG was approved as a standard by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) to replace GIF. PNG does not support animation as GIF does, and some older browsers do not support this file format. PNG supports transparent backgrounds.
The GIF file format is limited to supporting 256 colors. Therefore, it is more effective for scanned images such as illustrations. GIF can also be good for line drawings, black and white images, and small text that is only several pixels high. GIF supports animation and transparent backgrounds.
This is one of the few levels (along with Border Village and The Perilous Pit) that features the stone houses maybe built by Gnosticenes; in this level, there are two of them. The rest of the level is underground, consisting of several tunnels and caves, most of them with tar. In fact, there are five tar pits on the outside, and six other tar pits inside the caves. The lowest caves, especially the ones with the bigger tar pits, have distinct \"tarish\" backgrounds.
On the PC version, Console version, Mobile version, Old Chinese version, tModLoader version, and tModLoader 1.3-Legacy version, the following backgrounds are used. On the Old-gen console version, Windows Phone version, and Nintendo 3DS version, the cavern layer background for any other biome the player is in is dynamically tinted pink. 781b155fdc